Saturday, January 25, 2020

Round-trip time (rtt)

Round-trip time (rtt) RTT: Round-Trip Time (RTT) can also be called as round-trip delay. It is to calculate how much time required for sending a packet or signal pulse from one source to a specific destination and comes back to the same specific source. RTT is one of the several factors that affecting latency and the time between the request for data and also the complete return or display of that data. RTT can range between a few milliseconds under some ideal conditions to several seconds between points under adverse conditions. Estimated RTT plus can be defined as safety margin. It is the estimated value of RTT that is based on the combination of current RTT and the past RTT. EstimatedRTT = (1- a)*EstimatedRTTlast + a*SampleRTT Large variation in Estimated RTT means larger safety margin. To calculate the DevRTT we need to estimate how much Sample RTT deviates from Estimated RTT i.e., DevRTT = (1-b)*DevRTTlast +b*|SampleRTT-EstimatedRTT| (typically, b = 0.25) Segment Sample RTT Estimated RTT DevRTT Time Out Interval 1 130 130.00 130.00 650.00 2 138 131.00 99.25 528.00 3 122 129.88 76.41 435.50 4 124 129.14 58.59 363.50 5 131 129.37 44.35 306.77 6 139 130.58 35.37 272.05 7 139 131.63 28.37 245.10 8 121 130.30 23.60 224.71 9 134 130.76 18.51 204.80 10 127 130.29 14.71 189.12 11 267 147.38 40.93 311.12 12 139 146.33 32.53 276.47 13 126 143.79 28.85 259.19 14 134 142.57 23.78 237.68 15 141 142.37 18.18 215.08 16 137 141.70 14.81 200.93 17 291 160.36 43.76 335.42 18 123 155.69 41.00 319.68 19 134 152.98 35.49 294.95 20 139 151.23 29.68 269.95 21 141 149.95 24.50 247.94 22 142 148.96 20.11 229.41 23 139 147.71 17.26 216.77 24 122 144.50 18.57 218.79 25 123 141.81 18.63 216.34 26 143 141.96 14.23 198.90 27 215 151.09 26.65 257.70 28 134 148.95 23.73 243.87 29 122 145.59 23.69 240.36 30 134 144.14 20.30 225.35 Table 1 A premature retransmission timeout occurs if there is no packet or signal loss or if the lost packet or signal can be captured by fast retransmission mechanism. With contrast, over estimation of RTT will lead to late retransmission timeout, in that case, if there is a loss and which cannot be captured by the fast retransmission mechanism. Therefore, it is crucial to have a Retransmission Timeout (RTO) value for TCP performance which is an equilibrium point in balancing between both the above cases. Note: RTO must be smaller than RTT. Following are the few algorithms which help in setting the retransmission timeout Ludwig and Katz propose the Eifel algorithm to eliminate the unnecessary retransmissions that can result from a spurious retransmission timeout. Gurtov and Ludwig present an enhanced version of the Eifel algorithm and show its performance benefits on paths with a high bandwidth-delay product. Ekstrand Ludwig proposes a new algorithm for calculating the RTO, named the Peak-Hopper-RTO (PH-RTO), which improves upon the performance of TCP in high loss environments. RFC 3649 proposes modification of TCP congestion control that adapts the increase strategy and makes it more aggressive for high bandwidth links (i.e. for large window sizes) Even if there is no packet loss in the network, windowing can limit throughput. Because TCP transmits data up to the window size before waiting for the packets, the full bandwidth of the network may not always get used. The limitation caused by window size can be calculated as follows: where RWIN is the maximum receive windows size and RTT is the round-trip time for the path. At any given time, the window advertised by the receive side of TCP corresponds to the amount of free receive memory it has allocated for this connection. Otherwise it would take the risk to have to drop received packets by lack of space. Unrelated to the TCP receive window, the sending side should also allocate the same amount of memory as the receive side for good performance. That is because, even after data has been sent on the network, the sending side must hold it in memory until its has been acknowledged as successfully received, just in case it would have to be retransmitted. If the receiver is far away, acknowledgments will take a long time to arrive. If the send memory is small, it can saturate and block emission. A simple computation gives the same optimal send memory size as for the receive memory size given above. Packet loss When packet loss occurs in the network, an additional limit is imposed on the connection. The limit can be calculated according to the formula (Mathis et al.): where MSS is the maximum segment size and Ploss is the probability of packet loss Below table shows the theoretical maximum sustained TCP throughput 135 kbits/sec at 1 second RTT 225 kbits/sec at 600 millisec RTT (typical satellite RTT) 449 kbits/sec at 300 millisec RTT 1200 kbits/sec at 100 millisec RTT (typical domestic Internet RTT) 1780 kbits/sec at 60 millisec RTT 2800 kbits/sec at 30 millisec RTT 4510 kbits/sec at 10 millisec RTT (typical within a city) In order to set the ACK timer we need to know how large the ACK timeout value should be. It can be too short or too long. Too short > premature timeout > extra retransmission Too long > slow reaction to loos > poor performance For this we need to have the timer longer than RTT, for this we need to estimate RTT by measuring the time from a segment transmission until the receipt of ACK which is nothing but Sample RTT. For this we need to ignore retransmissions and measure only one segments RTT at a time. By doing so, the sample RTT will vary and we can compute an average RTT based on the several recent RTT samples. Timeout = Estimated RTT + 4*DevRTT The probability of premature retransmission timeout is P1 = P[RTO < RTT] ((1-p) W + (1-(1-p) W) (1-3/W) ) ≈ P[RTO < RTT] (1-3/W 2) ≈ P[RTO < RTT] The throughput degradation due to this event is: L1 = WlogW. During the slow start ph.ase we can observe, TCP sends at most W packets. We obtain that the expected output degradation result to premature retransmission timeout is: P1.L1 = P[RTO

Friday, January 17, 2020

Health and Safety at Work Essay

Legislation that relates to general health and social care setting are the Health and Safety Act, The Management of Health and Safety Work Regulations, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), Manual Handling Operations Regulations, The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR), Personal Protective Equipment Regulations (PPE). The main points of the health and safety policies and procedures identify significant risks in relations to the work place and work tasks, control the measures for hazards, the arrangements for reporting accidents or health problems, arrangements for first aid, fire and emergencies, who the key person is for health and safety matters which is usually the manager or the owners, also how health and safety is communicated in the workplace and the arrangement to protect others. The main health and safety responsibilities for a social care worker is to be responsible care from themselves and other peoples health and safety, to report to the employer any potential and actual risks, also to take part in health and safety training and to understand and comply with the health and safety instructions and procedures. The main health and safety points for a manager/employer is to provide a safe place to work, assess any risks and take action to reduce them also provide information, instructions, training and supervision to employees and also provide adequate welfare and first aid facilities. The main health and safety responsibilities of the individual/resident is to understand and comply with health and safety instructions and procedures and take reasonable care for their own and other peoples health and safety. Tasks that should be carried out that requires specialist training include the use of equipment which is usually given within weeks of starting the job and then gone over as a recap, first aid, medication training, assisting and moving, emergency procedures and food handling and preparation. Accessing additional support and information may include appointed person that is responsible for health and safety, the line manager, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the Environmental Health Department. Hazard is the potential to cause harm or hurt yourself or others. Risk is the likelihood of harm occurring through and exposure to harm. A risk assessment is used to identify hazards, evaluating risks, taking precautions, reviewing risks and reporting and recording the outcomes. Reporting potential risks is done by recording findings on a risk assessment form and then communicating the findings immediately to the manager. You should report this immediately and when existing control measures are inadequate, when additional control measures are required and when there have been changes to the original risk assessment such as changes to working practices. Risk assessments can help by making the individual aware of the risks and the responsibilities employers and employees have and being used as the basis for safe working practices. Different types of accidents could include; * Falls * Burns and scalds * Slips and trips * Swallowing a hazardous substance Sudden illness may include; * Cardiac arrest * Difficulty breathing * Stroke * Hypoglycaemia/hyperglycaemia * Seizures * Loss of consciousness * Food poisoning Procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur is recording and reporting of accidents or illness with full details, usually filled in on an accident form that can be found in the main office, registered person submitting the notification to CQC and HSE. It is important for emergency first aid tasks to be carried out by qualified first aiders to comply with health and safety legislation, to preserve life, to minimise the consequences of injury and illness and to treat injuries and illnesses effectively. Routes that infection can get into the body is blood circulation via an open cut or graze, digestive via eating or drinking something, respiratory by inhaling something and body fluids by not taking the correct precautions such as washing your hands. Ways in which our own health and hygiene might pose a risk to an individual or to others at work by causing serious infection, causing illness and fatalities. Majority of these can be caused by not wearing correct equipment such as gloves and aprons but some cannot be helped.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Transformational Leadership The Leadership Challenge Model

Transformational Leadership: The Leadership Challenge Model Description of the Leadership Challenge Model The theory that will be applied to the practice environment in which the project The Care of Type 2 Diabetics in a Shared Medical Appointment will be implemented is The Leadership Challenge Model developed by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge Model is a model of transformational leadership that also is known as The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. This model has its origins in a research project that was started by Kouzes and Posner to determine what leaders did that made them best at leading people in 1983 (Kouzes and Posner, 2007). It was through the analyzation of their research that Kouzes and Posner arrived at The Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. These practices are described as behaviors that may be learned by anyone who is committed to utilize them as opposed to components of a leader’s personality (Truesdell, 2011). 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Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Should Fine Arts Be Kept in Schools - 857 Words

Fine arts are one of the first things that get cut when school budgets are getting tight. Administrators even question why we have a fine arts program if it’s not beneficial to the curriculum. You need fine arts to improve creativity and mindset for whatever you may want to do, and help kids see a way to have a place to belong and get in where they may feel left out or otherwise rejected. Research shows that low poverty areas that have fine arts programs keep kids occupied and out of trouble. Fine arts should be kept in schools because it keeps kids out of trouble, improved school results, and the outcome of fine arts involvement. First, the schools that most commonly get budget cuts are the schools in low poverty areas. Research shows that cutting the fine arts programs doesn’t do as much as they think it will. Administrators are thinking short-term and not long-term. The long-term would be that the youth will never have any sort of fine arts education. 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