Monday, September 30, 2019
Dallas has a facility with unique features like the automated people mover, under this system the supplier personnel maintain the system while the owner operator the system. Both the supplier and the owner shares the facilities, this system was designed and enforced by the APM program.While in Dubai Cargo they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the automated people movers systems. In terms of their size Dubai center is the bigger as compared to DFW. Both centers are similar in terms of meeting the regulation and standard set out by the aviation authority. (Uher 2005)The `secret sauce` of the UPS Worldport operationThe hidden secret sauce of the worldport is the flex. This is because flex manages the configuration of the building. All the applications which rely on each other know the destination of the package. Flex executes the configuration two times within one particular day.One his done during the night shift (for the packages of the next day) and the other is done during the day shift. (It proce ss over three hundred thousands second day air packages) The package tracking data is fed into the UPS data center in Mahwah, NJ by the two systems (one for international and one for domestic).The information is later used by the customer to locate their luggages or goods via the UPS website. After a package has completed its journey through the one hundred and twenty two miles, the package is directed to a destination chute that is loaded into a container, after which it is then rolled into the aircraft.In the entire process packages are only handled twice by the human beings: this is during loading and when unloading. Before the containers are loaded to the aircraft, they are pushed into the automated scales where they are weighed and checked.As the last container is being loaded into the aircraft, the conveyorÃ¢â¬â¢s belts hum ceases momentarily and the worldport becomes almost silent for a short duration. After a few hours a new team of TSG technicians start to inspect the IT hardware as they prepare for the next shift.The system will be reconfigured and a new sort plan will be formulated by flex. This system can be used with other companies, if done it is likely to increase the efficiency of the services that the company is delivering. (Uher 2005)Advantages and Disadvantages of the Hub and spoke system to MASkargoThe disadvantages are: Any disruption at the hub like a security problem or bad weather can result into delays into the entire system. secondly the operation efficiency of the entire system is greatly affected by hubÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity, thirdly it is difficult to schedule a flight given that the airline has to take into consideration all the needs of the spokes, lastly different airlines are selecting different cities has hubs this makes it difficult for the airline to get a reliable partner. . (Singh B 2003)The advantages are: it centralizes the operation, this makes it cheaper for the company in terms of management; lastly all the packages can be separated at the hub. (Singh B 2003)The major milestone achieved by Emirates Sky Cargo in 2005-2006Emirates Sky cargo succeeded in achieving the following: they bought three Airbus A 310 301Ft in Germany. This was going to be the first airbus that the airline was going to have. By buying the airbus the company succeeded in increasing the number of customers that they were going to serve, the company has also built a new center which is the biggest in Middle East.Comparison of the Dulles `Building 5` to MASkargo, Qatar and Emirates centersThe cargo building 5 has a handling space that measures 250,000 square feet, it has windows mezzanine office space measuring 37,000 square feet, its aircraft apron space is 440,450 square feet, storage space of 440,450 square feet.This makes it bigger than the MASkargo center in Malaysia; however the building is smaller as compared to Emirates and the Qatar centers. The drainage system of the four centers are the same, this is because they have to adhere to the international standards.The importance of capacity planning to airport management in regards to aircraft or passengersCapacity planning is important because it helps the airport authority to handle the traffic at the airport. Whenever the airport authority knows the numbers of planes that the airport can handle they cannot not allow any excess plane to come into the airport, this will reduce the number of accidents that are likely to occur in the airport as a result of congestion.Reference:Singh B 2003 Cargo crunch Malaysian Business News paper June 16th 2003 issueUher M 2005 Schriftenreihe des Instituts fÃ ¼r Transportwirtschaft & Logistik PDF retrieved from www.wu-wien.ac
Sunday, September 29, 2019
IntroductionIndia is huge in civilization and traditions, nature, faiths, linguistic communications rich with historical memorials with common architectures. Taj Mahal is one such wonderous memorial constructions built by ShahJahan as grave in memory of his idolized married woman, Mumtaj Mahal. Taj Mahal is renowned for its glorious Indo-Islamic architectural presence in manner, form, colour, location of the memorial and stuff used to build it. It is one of the 8th admiration of universe Ã¢â¬Ës celebrated memorials and appreciated by its visitants Ã¢â¬Ë involvements for their penetration into its civilization, clip and history of the memorial. Therefore, Taj Mahal architecture can be renowned as the largest theoretical account combination of the derived function of Byzantine, Persian, Indian and Islamic architecture. The Indo-Islamic architecture takes live in signifier with the slave dynasty in India. It is credited to Mughal dynasty in Pakistan and India, the field of humanistic disciplines and architecture who gave particular attention to raise historical memorials in India. The earliest memorials what we find in India are the recycled stuff of the bing Jain, Buddha and Hindu memorials. The Islamic architecture was so fostered by the Delhi Sultanate and achieved excellence by the Mughal parts.The Background of Islamic Architecture in IndiaThe Iranian dynasties dating back to 500 BCE has seen many Islamic religion dynasties. Throughout the opinion dynasties, Persia ( modern Iran ) has modeled as centre for many art, architecture, poesy and doctrine. Persia is good known for its trade since pre-historic times. The Silk Route acts as span between distant lands for trade, spiritual and material civilization. The concern besides spread to chief lands of cardinal Asia, including Armenia, Georgia, an d India. Persia has besides seen developmental foreparts in architecture which spread many Asiatic states as did concern excessively. The clime, the influence of people, Ã¢â¬Å" available stuff, spiritual intent and peripheral civilizations, and frequenters besides played a of import function in the development of architecture Ã¢â¬ ( Mehraby ) .The brilliant architectural edifices take inspiration from the landscape, snow-capped mountains, vales, and broad polishing fields which conceived and accomplished fresh thoughts for edifice artefacts while mountains serve both physical and mental beginnings of inspirations in Persian architecture.Thus, Beauty is regarded Godhead for ancient Iranian civilisations.The Architectural Intentions of the Taj MahalTaj Mahal traces its architecture as rooted with Islamic speculations. Though the Persian or the Islamic civilisation was non the first to concentrate their architecture on spiritual subjects, it was a strong characteristic among Byzantine design ers. The Byzantine Architecture records the spiritual edifices and their designs as accomplishments of the Byzantine Empire. The most singular illustration at Constantinople is Hagia Sophia, a Christian church at Constantinople ( the present Istanbul ) is a monolithic and cosmetic church represents the glorification of the Byzantine Empire. The architectural purposes besides note the power factor in Islamic architecture. The Islamic dynasties believe in distributing Islam and laud to God by jointing through mosques, unmatching historical memorials and castles of first-class beauty. To accomplish this, they desire and get power to patronage architecture. The Islamic architecture spread every bit far as Egypt and North Africa, Spain, and Persia. Then, they developed their alone manner by uniting the humanistic disciplines of the Byzantines, the Copts, the Romans, and the Sassanids. This alone manner specializes in blending the native design elements with imported 1s. Taj Mahal suffices this stance. The memories of Mumtaj Mahal are spread all over the universe typifying his love for her. The singularity of this memorial is its dome construction which is characteristic of Byzantine architecture. The abstract designs are notable of Iranian architecture, the flowered designs and picture goes to Safavid manner, the location of the edifice is besides an of import factor which wholly reiterates the presence of head Iranian architecture. Communicating spiritualty is yet another position attributed to Islamic Architecture. This position has been practiced among sages, philosophers, poets, and religious Masterss of Islamic states. The adherent of proliferating Islamic jurisprudence through the chase of cognition, contemplations on world of nature beyond visual aspect, disciplined supplication is besides reflected on their architecture. The rock flowers of the Taj Mahal gives a image of pragmatism intriguing Ã¢â¬Å" the visitant with their grace and colourful freshness Ã¢â¬ , ( Okado and Joshi ) . The Taj Mahal Ã¢â¬Ës reference to Ã¢â¬Å" paradise can be seen in the motive of flowers carved on the funerary Chamberss of the mausoleum, every bit good as on the pedestals of the interior iwan Ã¢â¬ , where flowers and roses symbolize the Kingdom of Allah, ( Bin and Rasdi ) . The Byzantines Ã¢â¬Ë architecture besides followed similar organizing rules. Whereas the Christian spiritual worship topographic point and its design corresponds to the faith. Therefore, symbolism besides played a important function in the development of the signifier of the memorials. During the Byzantine period the Church itself became a symbol of the religion. The maestro piece of Indo-Islamic Architectural manner, the beauty of the Taj Mahal, inspires legion creative persons from all over the universe. To this, Okada and Joshi ( 1993 ) relates to the four canals to the four rivers of Paradise referred in the Holy Qur'an. The symbolic nature of the garden and the canals at Taj Mahal is considered the sepulchral nature of the memorial and the Quran lettering located on the southern entryway wall of the chief Gate gives undeniable credibleness to the comparing of the Taj Mahal with the Garden of Paradise, this lettering says: ( It will be said to the pious ) : Oxygen ( you ) the one in ( complete ) remainder and satisfaction! Come back to your Lord, Ã¢â¬â well-pleased ( yourself ) and well-pleasing unto him! Enter you, so, among My esteemed slaves, And enter you My Eden! The Holy Qur'an,Surah Al-Fajr: 89:27-30 Therefore, it is noteworthy to see the pupils of Islamic architecture digesting Taj Mahal as an uncomparable memorial in Iranian beginning.The Architecture, Structure of Taj MahalThe Byzantine and Islamic architecture portion a common manner of architecture, the dome. The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is in response to the Islamic architecture which shows the influence of Byzantine architecture imparted as the dome manner passed on to the Islamic architecture. It is besides known as Ã¢â¬ËPersian dome Ã¢â¬Ë . Today, it is called the Onion Dome. This architecture promotion of the usage of dome is accredited formed a new manner in planetary architecture. The most famed illustration is the Taj Mahal ( A.D. 1630 ) built by Mughal Dynasty in India. But, this is non new to Indian architecture. The good known Buddhist Stupa at Sanchi, India 4th to 1st century BCE is Ã¢â¬Å" a commemorating memorial associated with preserving sacred relics. Not merely these, the Mauryan land ( c. 321-185 BCE ) in India besides fortify their metropoliss with Stupas, Viharas, and temples were constructed, Ã¢â¬ ( Kumar ) . The Taj Mahal consists of 16 Chamberss, eight Chamberss each on two degrees that contain the octangular funerary chamber overcome by a surbased inner dome. The funerary chamber consists of the grave of Mumtaj Mahal and Shah Jahan together, adorned by Ã¢â¬Å" a baluster of finely perforated marble and studded with semiprecious rocks, Ã¢â¬ ( Okado and Joshi ) . Iranis focused their attempts on reexamining their architecture in barrel vaulting, crenallated roofs, conelike squinches, large bricks, egg-shaped arches and different designed brick work or now and once more platerworks over bricks. Though the architecture is traced to 3000 old ages, the design elements of Iranian architecture like Ã¢â¬Å" high-arched portal set within a deferral, columns with bracket capitals, columned porch or talar, a dome on four arches, a huge egg-shaped arch in the entryway, a four iwan courtyard, early towers making up toward the sky, an interior tribunal and pool, an angled entryway and extended ornaments Ã¢â¬ display their typical structural designs, ( Mehraby ) .The StructureThe intended grave is made of big white marble construction standing on a square plinth beam consisting of a symmetrical edifice with an iwan ( arch-shaped room access ) presented with a big dome and finial at the top. Fran & A ; ccedil ; ois Bernier noted how Ã¢â¬Å" the Centre of every arch is adorned with white marble slabs whereon are inscribed big Arabian characters in black marble. Ã¢â¬ This construction titling reflects Iranian architecture. The base is multi-chambered regular hexahedron with chamfered corners making an unequal octagon of about 55 metres on all the four long sides. On each of these sides, a monolithic pishtaq, or a domed archway, frames the iwan with two likewise shaped, arched balconies stacked on either side organizing a symmetrical form on all sides of the edifice. There are four minarets frame the grave and the chief chamber houses the false Gravess of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. The existent Gravess are located at a lower degree. The top of the dome is fancily decorated with a Nelumbo nucifera design. Ã¢â¬Å" The columned bases open through the roof of the grave and supply visible radiation to the inside. Tall cosmetic steeples ( guldastas ) extend from borders of base walls, and supply ocular accent to the tallness of the dome. The dome and chattris are topped by a aureate finial, which mixes traditional Persian and Hindu cosmetic elements, Ã¢â¬ ( Wiki ) . Even the term of office of Byzantine architecture, the find of pendentives and dome on pendentives changed the expertness for building churches and eased the process during the Byzantine period. The bronzy brand of Moon and its horns indicating upwards, the heavenward in trident form clearly indicates the commixture of Persian and Hindu ornaments. The symbolic significance can be derived as Hindu symbol of Shiva. Ã¢â¬Å" The minarets are 40 metres tall ; each minaret spliting into three equal parts by two working balconies surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of a Nelumbo nucifera design topped by a aureate finial, Ã¢â¬ ( Wiki ) . The subsequent Islamic architecture in India signifies in the signifier of Mosques and graves Ã¢â¬Ë frontage beautification is the chief signifier. The development of the dome manner as called the basic regular hexahedron and hemisphere nomenclature in past architecture was subsequently brought into excellence at some phase in the Mughal Period. The experts say that Taj Mahal replicates Humayun Ã¢â¬Ës grave before the design for Taj Mahal was formed. The best illustrations for the Indo-Islamic Architecture are the Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, Agra Fort, Buland Darwaza, Qutab Minar and Safdarjang Tomb. Hambly ( 1964 ) writes the architecture of Taj Mahal to be of Safavid manner in his Ã¢â¬ËCities of Mughal India Ã¢â¬Ë which accounts the astonishing factors of Mughal dynasty. Safavid is yet another dynasty which ruled Persia during 1499-1722 B.C.E. Safavid has great trade of finest plants of metal art works like weaponries, armour, candle base, helmets, imbibing vass, and wine bowls. Ruggiero notes the events during Ã¢â¬Å" the Safavids, webs of caravanserais were constructed Ã¢â¬ to ease transit and promote trade since Persia was concern centre for many states so, ( Hambly ) . The penmanship on the big pishtaq is definite work of Safavid. Anon says, the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan conferred Ã¢â¬Å" Amanat Khan Ã¢â¬ rubric for his work for his eye-popping virtuosity. This lettering from the Qu'ran can be found underneath the interior dome are the lettering, Ã¢â¬Å" Written by the insignificant being, Amanat Khan Shirazi. Ã¢â¬ . Not merely this, the penmanship found on the marble grave is attended in item and delicate.Historical, Societal and Cultural Importance of Islamic ArchitectureHaider ( 2002 ) surveies the Islamic architecture along the quadruple phenomenon activity of social deductions viz. , the brooding jussive mood, the functional jussive mood, the constructive jussive mood and aesthetic jussive mood ; these rules besides project our images, outlooks, definitions, and review of Islamic architecture. Functional importance of any edifice under this architecture marks as symbolic or a marker or an icon or a monument fundamental to continue the yearning recollections and hence, indicate significance of a society. If we can traverse these social manifestations against the architectural purposes, a more focussed and fecund treatment can be formed. Our survey on Taj Mahal is one such productive consequence of these traversing. If we can see Islam as faith and as historical discernible fact of power and backing and inclined to seek the aesthetic jussive mood and symbolic look in architecture, the focal point is more likely on Taj Mahal.DecisionThe Mughal tribunals established in Pakistan and India were occupied by poets and penmanship creative persons from Persia who took flight from their really small place state to fortune gaining in India. The buildings what we see of Mughal dynasty is the work of these Persians who were the particular counsel of the Mughal Empire who gave attending for really item to raise memorials for the populace to praise the Islamic architecture. The Islamic architecture holds its generousness in assorted memorials found largely in India. They portray their love for art and inturn to God. Their push to distribute the celebrity is noteworthy. We see every dynasty or the imperium have their ain set of values, civilizations and traditions. These impacts are besides good noticeable in their architectures. Therefore, the Islamic architecture is symbolic of the architecture they produce.Work CitedBooksAmina Okada and M.C. Joshi. ( 1993 ) . Taj Mahal. Abbeville imperativenessGuido Ruggiero. ( 2002 ) . A comrade to the universes of the Renaissance. Wiley-BlackwellRoger Savory. ( 2008 ) . Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University PressFran & A ; ccedil ; ois Bernier ( 1996 ) . Travels in the Mogul Empire 1656-1668. Asiatic Educational Service Raj Kumar. ( 2003 ) . Essaies on Indian art and architecture: History and civilization series. Discove ry publication houseJournalMohamad Tajuddin Bin and Haji Mohamad Rasdi. ( 2008 ) . Reconstructing the thought of Muslim architecture: reconstituting the academic model and design attack within the position of the Sunnah. The Journal of Architecture, 13:3 ( 6 ) . pp 297 Ã¢â¬â 315.Online BeginningsMehraby, Rahman. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.destinationiran.com/Architecture.htmOkado and Joshi. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.islamicart.com/library/empires/india/taj_mahal.htmlBin and Rasdi. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.islamicart.com/library/empires/india/taj_mahal.htmlAnon. Ã¢â¬Å" The Taj Mahal Ã¢â¬ . Islamic architecture. Islamic Arts and Architecture Organization. Accessed on 25 Nov 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.islamicart.com/library/empires/india/taj_mahal.html.General Information about Persian Architecture. Accessed on 25 Nov 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.destinationiran.com/Architecture.htmIntroduction of Islamic architecture to India . Accessed on 27 Nov 2009 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.india9.com/i9show/Taj-Mahal-19777.htmByzantine Architecture. Accessed on 25 Nov 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //library.thinkquest.org/C005594/Medieval/byzantine.htmhypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_architecture
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The Phonology and Semantics of the English language - Essay Example PhoneticsÃ is the production of speech sounds by humans, often without former knowledge of the language being spoken. WhileÃ PhonologyÃ is the study ofÃ patternsÃ of sounds, mainly different sound patterns in different languages, or within a language, different patterns of sounds of an alphabet in different positions in words etc. Phonetics is the base for phonological analysis. Some linguistics include phonetic within the study of phonology. Phonology studies sounds at a particular stage in the development of the language to determine the sound patterns that can occur (Phonology, 2011). International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system ofÃ phonetic notation, primarily based on theÃ Latin alphabet. International Phonetic Association devised it as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language i.e. a system to transcribe the sounds of speech, independent of any particular language and valid for all languages. The IPA represents just those qualities of speech that are characteristic ofÃ spoken language: intonation, phonemes, the separation of syllables and words. International Phonetic Alphabet system is used in dictionaries to specify the pronunciation of words, as foundation for creating writing systems for previously unwritten language, by non-native speakers of English and teachers (IPA, 2011). Phonology is the base of written and spoken language. Without a standard sound pattern to letters symbolizing sound, we would be making mere utterances, just like we hear animals, which our fellow human beings will not be able to understand or interpret. After listening to the audio clip, I interpreted that the speaker is of Korean accent. Korean natives tend to use Korean Ã¢â¬ËsoundÃ¢â¬â¢ system while speaking English. Korean and English sound rules are quite different. Some of these differences do not have much impact but others can interfere greatly with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate (APC, n.d). At times, it happens that the
Friday, September 27, 2019
Audit Planning - Coursework Example For the success of the planning process, an auditor has to observe several steps. They include risk assessment, conducting a survey, planning meeting and definition of scope and objectives of the audit. Risk assessment is purposed to determine the risks involved in the planned audit. These risks if any can be evaluated to determine their levels and whether or not to be included in the current review. It also helps in deciding the extent of involvement of professionals with the specialised skills during the review process. In most occasions, these assessments are discussed with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s department to get their perspective on the risks identified and their views. A preliminary survey is conducted to allow an auditor get an overall understanding of the various departments within an organization and their operations. This helps in planning on time and resource allocation to the different audit areas. It also helps in identification of the direction, management and supervision of resources. This stage also enables auditors to design the strategy of the audit process for effective exercise and on time management. After completion of the survey, a meeting with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s heads is usually convened. This usually is carried out to discuss the strategies for the audit, and ensure that the information gathered during the survey is accurate and reviewing the level of risk assessed. Discussion of the audit scope and objectives is done at this stage. Documentation of the overall audit strategy and plan is compiled, and then the review process is then rolled to the firm. An effective audit process can be executed if there exists a clear understanding of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business operations. It is usually a challenge for many auditors to perform their operations without having knowledge of their clientÃ¢â¬â¢s business. It is a requirement in the International Standards on Auditing for the auditor to have knowledge about the company and its
Thursday, September 26, 2019
International trade - Assignment Example With due consideration to the various assumptions made by John Miller in his article, the discussion henceforth will intend to discuss the impact of the then working condition towards the development of the nations. Therefore, the evaluation of the arguments will consider the theories of Mercantilism, Liberalism and Marxism to define the actual notion presented through the article in relation to labour and economic development. Discussion Position of the Article in the Wider Debates in International Political Economy The phenomenon considered in the article concentrates on the Anti-Sweatshop movement held during the 1990s by young students, especially in American and European industrial regions. The sole concern behind this movement was to mitigate the violation of labour rules in respect of wages, child labour practices and safety measures along with health related issues (United States General Accounting Office, 1988). In this context, the term Ã¢â¬ËSweatshopÃ¢â¬â¢ is referred as the working conditions or rather environment where labours need to work for extra hours on a regular basis following rules which apparently disregard human values in relation to the minimum wage rate, or minimum working hours (Arnold & Hartman, 2010). The article further presents a view on the positive role of low wages for the labours working in Sweatshop which can be understood with reference to the Liberal approach of international trade theory. The two most apparent assumptions considered under this theory can be identified in terms that liberalisation denotes a massive inclusion of the government in deliberating the rules and policies concerning employment. This further exhibits the significance of freedom to be enjoyed by labourers through human rights and the role of free markets in the overall development of the economy (Slaughter, 1995). Emphasising on the liberal economic theory, the discussion of the article tends to elaborate on the economistsÃ¢â¬â¢ view in favour o f the imposition of legal codes to ensure that every factory abodes by the policies which in turn guide the Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom of human rightsÃ¢â¬â¢. The article further elaborates on the fact that the employees of factories should be treated with equality and liberty in their workplaces with the aid of proper safety and healthcare measures in order to mitigate the conflicts arising and thereby ensuring better economic growth. As connoted by Miller (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"What to do about sweatshops? This is not a difficult question for most main-stream economists to answer. Just enforce law, they sayÃ¢â¬ (pp. 131). However, on the contrary, the discussion in the article also deliberated that a certain degree of freedom was enjoyed by the labourers by willingly opting for such hard works to earn a relatively better pay than that offered by other sectors. The discussed theories of the article also states the economistsÃ¢â¬â¢ views about the overall labour market development so as to improv e economic conditions which can be illustrated with the help of Mercantilism approach to international trade. The Mercantilism approach attempts to pay major attention to the significance
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Practitioner Skills for Managers - Essay Example The paper presents the experience the manager is going through as one which often occurs. Attempting to get an individual to volunteer in doing a hectic but essential task is often quite difficult. However, the project needs to be completed and make sure that such problems do not occur in future. Thus, we must formulate a solution to the dilemma at hand. Managers need to use dilemmas like the one faced by the manager as learning experiences on how to come up with solutions to a similar problem in future. They can use their past experiences and knowledge to draw lessons to counter problems in a professional manner. The manager needs to be open-minded to new upcoming ideas and approach them with knowledge. Communication and talk are essential in defining a solution to the dilemma situation faced by the manager. In any practice, management involves talking with co-workers and assigning them roles to undertake. Conversations between managers and the junior staff are very vital whether it is being conveyed in a formal or informal way. The most important thing is for guidelines and instructions to be communicated well to employees of an organization. Failure to communicate well in advance can impede operations and undertake of tasks within an organization. There are many ways in which a manager like a manager can use. The style chosen must be taken to achieve best intentions. The communication should serve a purpose that is specific. In this case study, the communication should be towards dilemma solving. Effective communication will enable timely completion of projects. The manager should structure the discussion in a way that it aims at giving solutions that are goal oriented rather than emotional. In the meeting the organization to deliberate on the progress of the project, the manager was particularly emotional and temperamental. Effective communication enables the organization to take advantage of opportunities and to enhance the overall performance of the team. A manager needs to inspire performance through communication with co-workers. It should be able to nurture team expertise and skills and also have a fruitful outcome rather than conflicting. A communication between the manager and the staff ought to be able to ensure employees work in unison so as to come up with appropriate options.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
3-3 - Essay Example We have been quite guarded about expressing our feelings, as I said earlier, and during the task I learnt that there are a lot of things that I did not know about him and his interest. This activity with him also showed me how he feels towards me actually, something I was very keen on learning. I consider my brother to be one of my closest friends; we share a very close bond, I feel; a bond that has existed ever since I can remember. We have always managed to share our experiences and emotions, although we are on a different plane, both age wise and psychologically. My brother is 6 years older than me and is a college graduate. He is currently employed and is a married man, who takes excellent care of his wife and kids. One big difference between me and him is that he always speaks his mind. It does not matter to him how bad and ugly the truth would sound like, he will always say it the way he sees it to be true. On the other hand, I am not so outspoken. I am quite shy and do not talk much; in fact I am one of those people who do not talk unless it is necessary. I am not an open person by nature; I always tend to keep my emotions inside. I do not permit anyone to try to read me or my emotions or to have me figured out, as they say. I am so closely guarded that I normally do not tell anyone about my emotions, whether they involve that person or anyone else for that matter. I have learned a lot about my brother and how he feels about me after undertaking this assignment. The strangest, or funniest in a way, and surprising thing that I have learned was when he answered a question by saying that he liked it a lot Ã¢â¬Å"when we do some crazy funny stuff to our other siblings.Ã¢â¬ I thought he would say that he liked the way we share our feelings or the way we trust each other. I did not expect him to say what he said. However, this was a pleasant surprise, it made me realize that my brother is a very fun loving sort of person and he, in a way, does not mind the
Monday, September 23, 2019
The history of African-Americans - Research Paper Example The paper will use the works of different Historians in understanding why Reconstruction Era efforts did not immediately guarantee civil rights and equality to African-Americans. The paper will highlight significant events that contributed to racial violence, cultural identity and black organisations that advanced the movements for social justice and civil rights to African-Americans and ultimately attainment of post-racial American society. The main events that the paper will focus on include the enactment of 13th amendment, Colfax Massacre, Wilmington race riots, Harlem Renaissance, Black power movements and recent election of an African-American as the President of United States. African Americans Introduction A majority of African Americans are the descendants of African slaves that were held in the US from 1600 until 1865. African-Americans were at times referred as the Negro, Blacks, colored Americans and Afro-Americans. African-Americans trace their ancestry from native Africa n tribes in Sub-Sahara Africa (Turner-sadler, 2009). African-Americans mainly came to the US as slaves working for both Portuguese and Spanish settlers. Most of the African-Americans were concentrated in the Southern states and a significant majority worked as slaves in the Southern plantations (Bair, 1997). According to Hornsby (2008), African-Americans history is characterized with racial struggles, violence, agitations for self-identity and determination and ultimately eventual integration in to the mainstream U.S political and social life. Thesis: the history and struggles of African-Americans have greatly contributed to the current civil rights in the United States. Enactment of 13th Amendment and commencement of Reconstruction Era There are numerous significant African-American historical events that shaped the current US bill of rights and social relations in the US. In 1865, American Civil War came to an end after Confederate forces conceded defeat to Union forces (Hornsby, 2008). Accordingly, FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau was also established in order to provide education and health services to the emancipated African-American slaves. The first significant event in African-American history was the enactment of the 13th amendment of US constitution in 1865 (Hornsby, 2008). The 13th Amendment effectively ended slavery and involuntary servitude across the United Slaves. McPherson (1971) is of the idea that President Lincoln was concerned that Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 had not effectively prohibited slavery since it had been declared only for Ten Confederate States and not the Border States. McPherson analyses the numerous House of Representative meetings that were geared at enacting the 13th amendments and the intentions of the legislators. According to McPherson, the 13th amendment offered the best opportunity for Reconstruction and end of slavery after the Civil War that had claimed lives of thousands of African-Americans. However, some states did n ot ratify the amendment the same year while others continued to subject blacks to involuntary servitude (Turner-sadler, 2009). The amendment contributed to the end of African-American slaves and later demand for equal human rights with White counterparts (Turner-sadler, 2009). The 13th amendment also paved way for subsequent reconstruction amendments that provided for equal protection under the law and due process in legal proceedings (Turner-sadler, 2009). Colfax Massacre of 1873 The Colfax Massacre that occurred on Easter Sunday 1873 is regarded as another critical event in the history of African-Americans since the end of the civil war (Laird, 2009). During the riots, more than one hundred African-Americans were
Sunday, September 22, 2019
A Learning Experience Essay In this content, there will be a discussion on how someone can learns how to not use drugs and what it was like for them before and after their initial use. There will be an identification of what someone would learn from using to not using. Also included in the discussion there will be a description of how someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s learning could have occurred through classical conditioning, identifying the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response. An explanation will be given in regards to how their learning could have occurred through operant conditioning, describing the behavior, consequence, and reinforcement. There will be an address of how the learning could have occurred through cognitive-social learning. Identifying the Learning Experience Let us say that someone has been doing drugs on a social basis, living a wild and carefree lifestyle. Until one day, a different way of using the drug becomes introduced. In that instance the drug is introduced, it becomes an automatic addiction. It becomes an overwhelming desire to have more to obtain that rush repeatedly. It is the loss of all control and the beginning of losing the power of life. The person frits at the thought of the drug and loses control when they cannot get a hold of it when they want it and how they want it. It becomes a part of their lifestyle and it becomes more difficult for them to lose the desire after a long period of using. It takes a power greater then themselves to quit and the help of people like them who have been clean. With the help and support of these people, the desire to use becomes less and less and the Ã¢â¬Å"disease of addiction,Ã¢â¬ becomes arrested. What is Learned through the Experience The long term learning experience is learning to live without the use of drugs. Living with the use of drugs causes many to live a life of unmanageability. It leads to a time in an addictÃ¢â¬â¢s life when they seek a place where they can receive help, therefore leading to a clean life. They no longer want to live with the obsession of using and no longer with a life of insanity. Classical Conditioning, Unconditioned Stimulus and Response, Conditioned Stimulus and Response Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditional stimulus capable of eliciting a given response after being repeatedly presented with an unconditioned (significant) stimulus (Oxford Reference, 2007). For example, an addict may use a pipe, cigarillos, roll up papers, or syringes (conditional stimulus) whenever an addict set out to use their preferred drug of choice. Eventually, the addict becomes craved at the presence of these items (conditional response), even when the drug was absent (unconditional stimulus). Therefore, the absence of the drug leads to the overwhelming desire to use (unconditional response). If the drugs and all the items are present and then something runs out, the conditional and unconditional stimuli occurs together and are presented at the same place, making the addict powerless. Operant Conditioning, Behavior, Consequence, ReinforcementÃ Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) is a form of learning where an individual forms an association between a particular behavioral response and a particular reinforcement (Oxford Reference, 2007). In the case of an addict, when an addict takes the first drug it may be pleasant, but then a thousand is never enough. Therefore, the cliche becomes an addictÃ¢â¬â¢s worst nightmare. They use to live and live to use, resulting in the disease of addiction. Once an addict realizes the more they use the more unpleasant it gets, they do not want to face the consequences of jails, institutions, or death. Therefore, they seek the help of recovering addicts, admit their powerlessness over the drug, and make a choice to come clean. As an addict attempts to come clean, they need the reinforcement of Narcotics Anonymous meetings on a daily basis. It is recommended that a newcomer attend 90 meetings in 90 days, associate themselves with other recovering addicts of the same sex, and to seek out a sponsor to work the Twelve Steps. With all these options that Narcotics Anonymous provides helps a recovering addict get well on their way to living a clean productive life. The recovering addict needs to be constantly reminded to take it a day at a time, remember that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t become an addict over night, to keep going back (to meetings), and easy does it. If an addict keeps coming back, they are less likely to go out an relapse; but if they keep beating themselves up, do not change the people, places, and things around them, and continue to keep their old behaviors, they are just punishing themselves making it less likely for them to return to meetings and instead go out and use. Cognitive-Social Learning Cognitive-social learning incorporates the general concepts of conditioning, but rather than relying on a simple stimulus and response model, this theory emphasizes the interpretation or thinking that occurs within the organism, stimulus-organism-response (Carpenter-Huffman, 2010). In the case of an addict, addicts have attitudes, beliefs, expectations, motivations, and emotions that affect learning (Carpenter-Huffman, 2010). In the case of a recovering addict, these old beliefs, attitudes, false motivation and expectations, and lost emotions, being in the rooms of a Narcotics Anonymous meeting helps them to socialize with other recovering addicts and soon the newcomer is able to learn new behaviors through the observations, suggestions, and reading of literature given. In a roundabout way, the newcomer begins by imitating and sharing in meetings, gains a comfort, develops a sense of security, and becomes honest with themselves, allowing them to become honest with other recovering addicts. They learn that not one person is different from another in a Narcotics Anonymous meeting, but they are all alike, one addict reaching out to help another addict recover. Conclusion With the continued socialization and fellowshipping of Narcotics Anonymous, a recovering addict can lose the constant desire to use, find a power greater than themselves, and live a new life taking it a day at a time because any day clean is a day of success. Classical conditioning is a learned behavior that happens with or without the drugs being present. Operant conditioning is knowing that there are consequences for this learned ehavior (drug use), that results in punishment (an addict trying to recover but still having the presence of their old people, places and things resulting in relapse), and lead to a desire to have positive reinforcement (an addict entering into recovery after a life of defeat). Cognitive-social learning is coming to the realization that through participation in the Narcotics Anonymous program, it becomes easier to recover seeing that other addicts too have chosen to recover (imitating and practicing the principles, traditions, and completing the twelve steps).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Assessment and Students Essay The aim of this assignment is to demonstrate assessment as a factor that affects learning in placement areas. I am a qualified midwife who works for an NHS Trust but find it hard to deal with struggling students, through assessment. According to NMC (2006) the term mentor is used to denote the role of a Nurse or Midwife who facilitates learning and supervises and assesses students in practice places. I shall be referring to the standard of Assessment in practice. As a qualified midwife, I know the importance of assessment but not very sure on how to go about it, yet to achieve a better professional of tomorrow, mentors need to master good ways of doing this. Assessment is something we do before undertaking any process of instruction and again at the end of a practice placement. It is however a way of collecting, measuring and interpreting of information relating to a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s response the process of instruction Hand (2006). There are three ways of assessing used in health and social care formative, summative and continuous There are a variety of student, teacher and environment factors that can affect the quality of learning like, lack of assessment is one of those factors that affect learning Adult learning is a complex field with many different theories and can be daunting for mentors, however. Anderson (2011) states the need to have an understanding of intellectual, physical and attitudinal processes involved in adult learning to support and assess students in practice. Most students nursing students will achieve the proficiency standards they need to register but mentors may be faced with students whose performance is weak, while these may be in the minority, evidence suggests that mentors find this one of the most challenging aspects of their role Duffy (2004). The NMC Standards to support learning and assessment in practice (2006) identified mentorsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility in supporting and assessing nursing and midwifery students. The standards emphasise mentorsÃ¢â¬â¢ role in managing the failing students. Within pre-registration nursing and midwifery education programmes, clinical competence is verified via continuous assessment in practice. Mentors assess competence in practice and have a responsibility to confirm that students are capable of a safe and effective practice, NMC (2006). This requires them to identify underperforming students and manage the situation appropriately. Duffy (2004) identified that one of the reason mentors Ã¢â¬Ëfail to failÃ¢â¬â¢ students in practice is lack of knowledge of the assessment process. Students may react with anger/ aggression and denial, and may verbally abuse their mentor. They may react by blaming others, or even the previous mentor. Some students may be relieved and willing to accept a failed assessment. Failure can have a positive or negative outcome which is why some mentors may chose to avoid the assessment to avoid stress that is accompanied with failing a student. Duffy (2004) also states that this can leave the mentor feeling sad, anger, exhaustion or relief. Although failing students may have emotional consequences on the whole team, it is important that mentors do not avoid these situations by passing them when they feel that they have not achieved the outcome required of them whatever the reason. CONCLUSSION I have enjoyed looking at assessment as an aspect of mentorship, as I had to look at my own practice; it has opened my eyes in prioritising what is important and what is not. I have always known myself as someone who is not as assertive as I ought to be, and sometimes feel sorry or even scared of the reaction and thought I may end up passing a student who has failed. The NMC Code of professional conduct (2004) states that nurses and midwives on professional register have the duty to facilitate students of nursing and midwifery and others to develop their competence. By passing a failed student, you are not keeping to this code of conduct, and also by passing them; you are making your own work a lot harder as you will have to work with an incompetent professional tomorrow.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Southwest Airlines and Employee Engagement Strategy of the Company The companys operating strategy mainly emphasizes point-to-point service, instead of hub and spoke services employed by major American Airlines. Point-to-point service enables direct nonstop routing through lessening connections, delays and total trip time. Consequently 78 percent of Southwests customers fly non-stop. As of December 2008, the companys average aircraft trip stage length was 636 miles with an average duration of around 1.8 hours (Datamonitor: Southwest Airlines, 2009). This strategy also allows the firm to give their market with frequent conveniently time flights and low fares. The firm also provides services like Dallas Love Field to Houston Hobby 30 weekday roundtrips; Phoenix to Las Vegas, 17 weekday roundtrips and Los Angeles International to Oakland, 18 weekday roundtrips. This service also complements high frequency short haul routes with long haul continuous service between destinations including Phoenix and Tampa Bag, Las Vegas and Orlando, San Diego and Baltimore and Nashville and Oakland. Furthermore, Southwest serves downtown airport that consists of the following Houston Hobby, Chicago Midway, Baltimore-Washington International, Dallas Love Field, Long Island Islip, Oakland, Burbank, San Jose, Manchester, Providence and Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood. These airports are less crowded that other airlines hub airports (Datamonitor: Southwest Airlines 2009). As U.S. Department of Transportation stated, Southwest Airlines is the biggest air carriers in the United States in terms of figures of originating passengers boarded and the number of scheduled domestic departures. The companys operating strategy allows them to attain high asset utilization and consistent on-time performance. It also increase company revenues and tap lucrative markets (Datamonitor: Southwest Airlines 2009). The company operates using a low cost structure that is created to enable them to charge low fees to their clients. The firm has lower unit costs on average compared to major carriers. The firms low costs structure is supported by Companys reliance upon single aircraft type, their operationally efficient point-to-point structure and its highly productive workforce. The use of single aircraft type allows the company to simplify scheduling, flight operations, maintenance and training activities (Southwest Airlines Co. 2009). Employee Engagement Plan Employee Engagement Plan of the company has four levels due to the fact that employee engagement involves considering two principles. The first principle is that the company can acquire the biggest payoff by the engaged employees who can incorporate more value to the firm or those who can achieve the strong job motivation. The second principle is that no single engagement strategy can be considered as effective in all employees, therefore it would be advisable to experiment first before implementing the strategy (McCrimmon 2009). The first level is the basis level of engage that employs motivational factors that are very much familiar to the corporate world for years including effective supervision, unambiguous direction, career/professional development, employee empowerment, open communication, recognition and establishing a great work environment. These strategies involving doing something for staff but most of them are paternalistic in nature. While this basic level of engagement is clearly essential, using it alone (without employing higher levels of employee engagement) offers minimal chances of achieving successful results (McCrimmon 2009). For instance, when employees complaint about poor working conditions (basis level of engagement), they are actually complaining the feeling of being undervalued, disengaged, powerlessness and low sense of self worth. Since they prefer to blame something not related to their social need, poor working conditions serves as their scapegoat (McCrimmon 2009). Therefore, fixing these elements encourages employees to search for something else to blame. In great places to work, poor working conditions do not exist. However, ownership still focuses on managerial ranks, therefore, nothing has changed fundamentally. Employees often resign or claim early retirement with a sense of frustration often stating slow career progress. However, the sense of powerlessness and being undervalued is really the main reason for leaving the organization (McCrimmon 2009). The second level involves considering employees as suppliers of services. However, acquiring this level requires a corporate culture that encourages personnel to consider themselves as handling their own businesses, being suppliers of services. Being paternalistic in nature, majority of organizational cultures acquire so much responsibility in developing their people (McCrimmon 2009). The third level of employee engagement is engaging leadership that necessitates culture change since it requires managers to change their perspectives concerning their roles. This is beyond second level engagement since this requires encouraging managers to become more proactive in searching input from employees though it also places more pressure to perform more thinking and should not become satisfied of simply following directions (McCrimmon 2009). Employees who prefer this level of engagement should learn more about business strategy in order to reach and engage higher level discussions regarding fundamental business direction. This is more difficult to attain since this deprives management of some of the authority they use to achieve their career success. They should be rewarded for team success and not only for their great ideas and decisions (McCrimmon 2009). The fourth level of engagement consists of higher level of culture change. Rather than consider employee ideas as suggestions, their ideas are employed in bottom-up leadership. Higher confidence is thus necessary for employees in order to challenge their bosses while managers should develop the sense of receptivity when challenged (McCrimmon 2009). For instance, flight stewardess have closer connections with their clients, therefore, they are more aware with the needs of their clients. Flight stewardess suggestions should be valued by managers and must be considered in improving services provided by the airlines. They should also have representatives that could challenge business strategies of the company especially if these strategies are contrary to the clients needs. Steps of the Change Program you would implement to embed Employee Engagement Engagement is defined as the positive two way relationship between employees and their organization. These two are both aware of their own and others needs and they have their respective ways of to satisfy those needs. Employees and organizations who are engaged will work an extra mile since they see the benefit of doing so (Armstrong, 2007, p. 272). Level One The first step in embedding in Employee Engagement is starting with the basics-level one Employee Engagement. This involves effective management, unambiguous direction, career or professional development, employee empowerment, open communication, employee recognition and establishing a good work environment. Managers should implement strategies that promote aforementioned elements. The first one is to encourage open communications (McCrimmon 2009). Open Communications can be defined as a climate that encourage workforce to participate in decision making. Employees should also feel that the organization trusts them in order to sustain the integrity of communication channels. Since not every employee is capable of making specific executive decisions, in some way, employee can participate in decision making whether through ideas suggested during staff meeting or a simple suggestion box (Open Communication: How Important Is It Really? N.d.) If employees feel they have a share in improving company operations, they sense confidence to the organizations future. They will eventually demonstrate the best work ethics within the company. However, implementing this strategy can be difficult since this might earn oppositions from other executives (Open Communication: How Important Is It Really? N.d.). While the CEO has the right to implement this strategy despite the opposition, the success of open communication also necessitates initiatives of other executives and managers. In this sense, CEO should first learn to encourage dissents of open communications so that they would be able to participate effectively. Good work environment also serve as the fundamental part of employee engagement. Good work environment involves prevention of accidents and work occupation injuries that represent economic burden for employees, employers and to the society as a whole. Within the airline perspectives, this requires ensuring that the aircrafts are in good condition. Facilities and equipment inside the aircraft should also be maintained properly. If the employees feel that they are safe, they become more productive and provide services of higher quality (Why is a good working environment good for business? 2008). Good work environment could also involve sufficient space for employees to move freely when they perform their work. Another important component of level 1 employee engagement is the Employee Empowerment that pertains to a process the allows or authorizes every person to think, act, behavior and control decision making and work in autonomous fashion. It can also be defined as a state of feeling self-empowered to take control of their respective destinies. Managers often have the power to provide that empowerment on the people under him (Heathfield 2010). As a result, these people often wait for bestowment of their empowerment and the manager would then ask why his/her subordinates do not act in empowered ways. This often results to negative concept of empowerment. In this sense, managers should initiate bestowing empowerment and the organization must establish a work environment that fosters skills and desire of their employees to perform in an empowered manner. The company has the responsibility to eliminate the barriers that restrict the ability of their employees to perform in empowered fashion (Heathfield 2010). Career development pertains to organized planning process employed to align the needs of a business with employees career goals. Creating a career development plan can support employees in performing their work more efficiently. Furthermore, these plans can be more beneficial for employees who might want to transfer in a company or search for other jobs in the future. Managers and human resources personnel often have direct responsibility in implementing career development process. HR professionals could create a compensation structure that satisfies both the business needs that enables career growth (Faria, 2003). For example, improvements in their performance might result to higher compensation or bonuses such as all expense paid travel. The executives and managers of the airline should elicit their support in career development programs like these. Otherwise, such compensation structure will not be implemented in the first place. Employees should feel that the organization encourages them to become more mature professionally. Clear direction involves clear communications of organizations expectations towards their employees. Organization should ensure that their expectations are clearly communicated to their employees since this serve as contributing factor to employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Communicating clear performance expectation often begins with strategic planning process of executives (Heathfield 2010). The way they convey such plans and goals to their employees is necessary to develop an organization wherein all components are linked and reaching the same direction. Executive leaders should clearly communicate their expectations for the teams performance and anticipated outcomes to match each area of the organization with their mission and vision. They must also define the organizations culture of teamwork preferred by the company (Heathfield 2010). Level Two Employees must learn to consider their leaders (e.g. executives and managers) as customers and be trained on marketing and developing their businesses themselves. Business development will encourage being proactive to become more updated with the needs of internal customers and promote creative thinking regarding additional ways for adding value to the services provided (McCrimmon 2009). If employee performs extra responsibilities for additional pay, they could sense some ownership that small business owners also sense. Consequently, employee might demonstrate higher level of initiative to enhance performance of the firm. Career development, restructured as business development would be based on employee initiatives (McCrimmon 2009). However, the engagement of this level requires managers to treat their subordinates as supplier partners and promote a sense of ownership over the business. To become successful suppliers of services, employee requires training and support to provide more solution and become less dependent on managers rather than spoon feeding them (McCrimmon 2009). Level Three and Level Four of Employee Engagement This level of engagement necessitates changing from valiant, transformational leadership towards a more engaging style, where leaders shift from being solution generating players to facilitators, coaches and catalysts (to be discussed further in section C). Role that the Leadership Team should take in the implementation of that plan and the preferred Leadership Team that must be practiced. The leadership style within the airlines should be incorporated with humility. As suggested by Jim Collins in Level 5 leaders, incorporating humility among leaders have a good reason: the industry is too complicated and fast changing, therefore it would be hard for one person to realize them all (McCrimmon 2009). Executive leaders and managers who often base their confidence on their capability of developing solutions can face difficulties at times when they seem confident. It would be easier to base their confidence on their capability to ask some facilitative questions. If compared to sports, business is all about playing coach instead of sitting on the bench simply coaching (McCrimmon 2009). Leaders who are solution generators often ask factual questions to realize issues so that they could create their own solutions. Unlike solution generators, engaging leaders often acquire ideas instead of facts through asking either of the following questions (McCrimmon 2009): What do you think is the major issue? What are the options you consider in addressing this problem? What is your chosen option and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the preferred option? Who are the people that must be involved in the implementation? What will it take and how long to implement this plan? (McCrimmon 2009) Engaging questions should not be limited to brainstorming sessions or quality circle meetings. Leaders can ask these questions whenever their subordinates come to them with the issue. Managers should restructure their role from authoritative manager and solution generator to being catalyst, coach and facilitator. Attaining the third level of engagement requires managers to eliminate some of their most loved responsibilities such as being so much involved in significant business problems and providing solutions for the most challenging strategic issues. It would be insufficient to ask employees how they could solve their work-related issues (McCrimmon 2009). One advantage of changing leadership style is this is simple to implement compared to cultural change. The latter is often time consuming and expensive but with minimal effort, it would be easier to encourage managers to become more engaging. Managers must reposition their roles as facilitators, catalysts to prevent violating employee expectations that managers should be answer givers. Managers might selective persuade some of their subordinates, specifically those receptive ones, to consider themselves as self employed service providers. Managers could establish processes that can confirm the productivity gains of such processes (McCrimmon 2009). Furthermore, as airlines shift across the four levels of employee engagement, the organizational gradually minimize the gap between employee empowerment and dependency. A transformational leadership that can be heroic in nature focuses on psychological perception of ownership and increases dependency. Considering that leadership should be demonstrated as bottom-up is valuable processes in equalizing this power balance, therefore this could develop more shared ownership and solid group effort is supporting organization to become more prosperous. The last three levels of employee engagement have a common characteristic: they involve employees minds and stimulate them to perform more thinking for themselves and for the companys future (McCrimmon 2009). The fifth level leadership consists of strategies that involve employees by making providing them a stronger sense of giving direction to the firm or at least, some parts of it. People are inherently passionate of their ideas and when employee promotes new products and process improvements to their managers, they usually demonstrate much more passion that they do for their regular work (McCrimmon 2009). The complex concept of leadership that might involve challenging the status quo has a strand. Leadership is linked to a romantic notion particularly people would like to view themselves as leaders for the same objectives they want to imitate their idols in sports, movies or music. However, unlike leaders, subordinates are often encouraged to become more engaged using bottom-up thought leadership. One good example is the Sony employee who created Playstation and influenced his senior management to create it. Similarly, staff of ticketing department could share their ideas on how to accelerate and improve ticketing process. They could also share their ideas on how to minimize losses associated with ticket cancellation, for instance, imposing cancellation fees to discourage passengers from cancelling their tickets. Nevertheless, the main important feature of this leadership is the courage to share their ideas despite of potential risks associated with it (McCrimmon 2009). In addition, the culture change necessary to implement the fifth level of employee engagement completely involves considering that much of executive activity is actually management that is suitable for fostering and supporting a coaching function. In this case, executive must only demonstrate leadership if they could promote a better fashion (McCrimmon 2009). When executive perform in facilitative fashion, employing engaging question, they are actually employing a managerial technique, instead of demonstrating leadership. Therefore, engaging leadership as mentioned in level 3 engagement is actually an engaging management. If they want to attain a passionate degree of employee engagement is to remove their monopoly on leadership. They must incorporate humility and emotional intelligence to change their identity to an executive that demonstrates an engaging leadership. Implementing such as major mind shift necessitates executives to disregards their pride and ego needs and view the potential of employees engagement through sharing their leadership tasks (McCrimmon 2009).
Thursday, September 19, 2019
This book really grabbed me right from the beginning of the story. The story begins with the birth of fraternal twins, with the grandfather patiently awaiting the birth of the son. Right away I felt sadness when the mother and one of the twins die. The boy dies and the girl survives. The grandpa seems to not care about the girl who survived . He was longing for his grandson because he is from the Maori tribe and the tribe is waiting for the sign of a new chief to be born . The chief would lead the village and its community to greatness. Many elders have been born but none with the strength to be the next chief. The little girl was named Pai. The grandma of Pai took her home to raise her along with the grandfather. The grandfather showed right away that women or girls where less than a man. He longed for a new chief . This was grandpas goal in life right now. He could see that their tribe was going down hill .He had hoped one of his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s would become the chief but neither one did. So grandpa was set on his grandson becoming the next chiefÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã .It was no secret that he blamed Pia for the death of his grandson. He felt by her birth she gave a curse to the tribe. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t see any truth or purpose in her having life over the grandson. He showed resentment toward her. As time went on , Pia seemed to be this stubborn, curious, and smart little tomboy . The grandfather didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that pia was a tomboy . He wanted her to stay away from a...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Isaac Newton was born in Lincolnshire, on December 25, 1642. He was educated at Trinity College in Cambridge, and resided there from 1661 to 1696 during which time he produced the majority of his work in mathematics. During this time New ton developed several theories, such as his fundamental principles of gravitation, his theory on optics otherwise known as the Lectiones Opticae, and his work with the Binomial Theorem. This is only a few theories that that Isaac Newton contributed to the world of mathematics. Newton contributed to all aspects of mathematics including geometry, algebra, and physics. Isaac Newton was born into a poor farming family in 1642 with no father. Newton's father had passed away just a few months before he was born. His mother intended Newton to become a farmer but his lack of interest and the encouragement of John Stokes, Master of the Grantham grammar school and that of his uncle, William Ayscough, led to his eventual admission to his uncle's college. Trinity College, Cambridge, as a student on June 5, 1661. As a boy in Grantham, Newton had been intolerable to his servants and found it difficult to get along with his fellow grammar school peers. As a student, he bought his own food and paid a reduced fee in return for domestic service, a situation that appears unnecessary in view of his mother's wealth. In the summer of 1662, Newton experienced, some sort of religious crisis which led him to write, in Sheltonian shorthand, his many sins, such as his threat to burn his mother and step-father. As a student at Cambridge Newton found himself among surroundings which were likely to develop and enhance his powers. In his first semester Newton happened to discover a book on astrology, but cou... ...Works Cited: 1. Isaac Newton. Picture of Artwork. 17 Feb. 2015 http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newton.jpg>. 2. Newton' Telescope. Picture of Object. 1670-1720. 17 Feb. 2015 http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/telescope.gif 3. Newton Refracting Light. Picture of Artwork. 17 Feb. 2015 . 4. Newton Sees Falling Apple. Drawing. 17 Feb. 2015 http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Science/Scientists/Scientists-36.html 5. Principia. Picture of Book. 17 Feb. 2015 http://www.manhattanrarebooks-science.com/images/newton%20daniel.jpg 6. A. "Isaac Newton." Galenet. 16 Feb. 2015 . B. "The Newtonian Moment." ProQuest. 17 Feb. 2015 http://proquest.umi.com/>. C. "Newton on Mathematics." ProQuest. 17 Feb. 2015 http://proquest.umi.com/>.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
This article mainly talks about the importance of marketing channel of marketing channel strategy decisions, they are highlighted by: 1) term consequences and 2) the constraints andopportunities that they represent..The present paper incorporates strategic management theory into marketingchannels literatures to examine the impact of different channel structures onthe choice of a generic channels strategy. Specifically, the contingent effects of channel power/control and the degree ofvertical integration are examined as they affect the choice between thegeneric strategies of overall costleadership, differentiation, focus, andcombination strategies. Besides research on the manipulation of power and influence attempts, littleattention has been given to the study of channel strategies. The intent of the present paper is to examine how one strategy concept,choice of a generic strategy, can be applied in a channel context. The basis of the discussion of strategy will be PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s str ategy typology,though supporting literature wiU also be used. Overall LowCost Leader, The OLC strategy stresses economies of scale,proprietary knowledge, preferendal access to raw materials, aggressive pricingpolicies, cost minimizadon, stable product lines and other factors which leadthe firm to become Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ¢â¬ low-cost producer or supplier in its industry. Specifically, I will be concerned with how varying levels of vertical integrationand power/control within the channel affect the choice of a generic strategy. I first need to provide a brief review of the strategy framework to be utilized. The Strategic Framework The work by Porter defines three generic strategieswhich firms might choose to pursue in order to establish a competidveadvantage: overall low-cost leader, differentiation and focus. According to Porter, a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s compeddve advantage combines with its scope ofacdvides to determine which of the three generic strategies the firm willchoose. The generic strategy, will, in turn affect the performance of the firm. 80 Firms stressing the differendadon strategy seek to be unique in theirindustry along some dimensions that are widely valued by buyers. Focus The focus strategy rests on the choice of a narrow compeddveÃ scopewithin an industry. The firm following this strategy selects a segment or subsecdon of an industryand s ets a strategy to serve it better than anyone else in the industry. Combination Strategies Porter states that each of his strategies is aÃ¢â¬ Fundamentally different approach to creadng and sustaining a compeddveadvantageÃ¢â¬ . Further support for a combination strategy is found in Wright, et al. Interestingly, the firms with the highest performance followed a combinationstrategy. Vertical Integration and Strategy The literature just discussed providesevidence that organizations may pursue more than one strategy at a time,thus allowing for a combination strategy. The current paper will include four potential strategies from which firms mightchoose: OLC, differentiation, focus, and combination. The following section will develop propositions, which identify contingentchannel conditions, which affect the choice of a generic strategy. Development of Propositions A number of management researchers have putforth contingency approaches, identifying under what conditions each genericstrategy is appropriate. On the internal end, are cost minimization, low cost leader, and defenderstrategies, consistent with the vertically integrated firm? At the other end ofthe continuum are maximizing, prospecting, and differentiating strategies,consistent with the nonintegrated firm. PI: Firms which are highly vertical integrated are more likely to choose an OLCstrategy. P2: Firms with low levels of integration are more Ukely to choose adifferentiation strategy. In terms of a combination strategy, there is evidence to suggest that firms,which generate high growth and high profits, are better equipped to use botha differentiation and an OLC strategy. When combined, these strategies produce enhanced economies of scale andimproved ROI. Some researchers take the position that power is necessarily a negativeaspect in that, those who possess it will attempt to infiuence exchangepartners by use of coercive influence strategies. If the firm chooses a focus strategy, it will attempt to Ã¢â¬Å"OwnÃ¢â¬ a particularmarket segment either through price leadership or differentiation. The difference between this strategy and the focus strategy is the fact thatfocus concentrates on a particular segment, while this strategy is industry-wide. The choice between these two strategies is likely to depend on the scopeÃ ofthe supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. While these firms are able to compete on an OLC strategy, there is not muchincentive to do so. When competing firms counter the low cost leader strategy, firms musteventually turn to some form of differentiation or suffer long-runconsequences for the industry. P5: When faced with the superior power of buyers, suppliers with a regionalcompetitive scope will attempt to combat the power of buyers by choosing afocus strategy. As discussed in the section on vertical integration, the pursuit of tactics suchas integration, cost reductions, and reliance on standardization of practices,is consistent with an overall low-cost leader strategy. P6: When faced with high levels of supplier power, buying firms willemphasize on a differentiated focus strategy. The concept of channel strategy has received little attention. Specifically, the contingent effects of channel power/control and the degree ofvertical integration have been examined as they affect the choice betweenthe geneVic strategies of overall cost-leadership, differentiation, focus, andcombination strategies. Contingent propositions is meant to show the interrelationship of channelstructure and subsequent channel strategies.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Does Farmer have any claim(s) for damages against Pilot based on intentional tort? Discuss. Rule of Law : The essential requirements of intentional torts are the elements of intent, injury, damages and causation. The concept of Ã¢â¬ËintentionÃ¢â¬â¢ does not require that Defendant (D) know that his/her act will cause harm to the Plaintiff (P), but must know with substantial certainty that their act will result in certain outcomes (landing of the plane on the PÃ¢â¬â¢s land). To successfully make a claim against D, P must prove that D acted with purpose when he landed the plane on PÃ¢â¬â¢s property, that the act was intentional and it lead to the injury suffered by P (loss of land and crops) and the resulting damages to PÃ¢â¬â¢s land and crops. It is clear from the facts that that Pilot had clear intent to land the plane on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s property, that there was injury, that were damages and that it was the act of the PilotÃ¢â¬â¢s that caused the damages. Farmer (Plaintiff Ã¢â¬â P) may have three claims against the Pilot (Defendant Ã¢â¬â D) for damages based on intention al tort. The potential claims will be on the basis of : a)Trespass to Land Ã¢â¬â Did Pilot trespass on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s land ? b)Trespass to Chattel Ã¢â¬â Did Pilot trespass on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s chattel (property i.e. crops) ? c)Trespass to Conversion Ã¢â¬â Did Pilot commit a conversion of FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s property ? Defenses From the PilotÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, the potential applicable defense privileges that the courts provide to the Defense such that they are not held responsible for their act, are in the form of i) consent, ii) self defense, iii) defense of others (good samaritan) or iv) necessity. Though there are additional defense privileges available under the rule of law, the facts of this case lean towards exploring the said defenses. i.Consent : In the absence of consent from the property owner, consent can be implied by law (in the cases of emergency, when consent cannot be obtained in person) or consent can be implied in fact (when a consent cannot be obtained, but a reasonable person would believe that the property owner would give consent under the same specific conditions). ii.Self defense as a defense would be applicable in the circumstances when a threat is imminent and the subsequent act is reasonable. It is an affirmative defense, which would absolve D ofÃ all liability. iii. Defense of others is a privilege to act when the Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ person being defended has the right to self-defense and a privilege to act, and the force being used by D is acceptable under the reasonable force rule. iv.Necessity : A necessity defense requires the following elements: (1) D acted to avoid a significant risk of harm; (2) no adequate lawful means could have been used to escape the harm; and (3) the harm avoided was greater than that caused by breaking the law. Some jurisdictions also require that the harm must have been imminent and that the action taken must have been reasonably expected to avoid the imminent danger. The necessity defense could either be a Ã¢â¬ËpublicÃ¢â¬â¢ necessity or a Ã¢â¬ËprivateÃ¢â¬â¢ necessity. A public necessity is a full defense under the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Ëpublic goodÃ¢â¬â¢ and D is not held liable for any damages. A private necessity is a not a viable defense and maybe considered a limited defense since the act that created t he tort was for the benefit of D or a third party. As a result, D may not be liable for the trespass, but is liable for the damages resulting from the trespass. The fact that the intent was driven from necessity, does not change the fact that the landing of the plane on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s property was intentional, voluntary and without the consent of the Farmer. However, the based on the facts, Pilot has a potential defense in the form of necessity. Analysis a)Did Pilot trespass on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s land ? Trespass to land is defined as a personÃ¢â¬â¢s unlawful entry onto anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s land. There are five elements which the plaintiff must show to make prima facie case : I.Intrusion on PÃ¢â¬â¢s land was a volitional act by D. II.D acted with the intent of intruding on the PÃ¢â¬â¢s land. III.Physical intrusion on the PÃ¢â¬â¢s land by D. IV.P was in possession or was entitled to immediate possession of the land when the trespass took place. V.Trespass was caused by the DÃ¢â¬â¢s act. Based on the facts, it is clear that the Pilot has a prima facie case for Ã¢â¬Ëtrespass to landÃ¢â¬â¢. The facts are clear that the i) Pilot intended to land on the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s land; ii) Pilot did land on the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s land; iii) the Farmer had not expressly authorized the entry.  However, as a defense privilege we have to review the law in terms of implied consent (implied in-fact and implied in law) and the application of necessity case law. The urgent nature of the circumstances and the availability of limited options (sub-division of homes, trees of vacant land) provide a basis for implied consent. Implied in-fact consent would be an objective manifestation as a reasonable person would consent under the circumstances especially when taking into account the loss of life against the loss of property. Per case law, the courts have ruled that loss of life over-shadows loss of property. Similarly, implied in-law consent would need to be reviewed under the rule of law and the benefit of the public, considering the options between landing on a housing tract versus landing on a vacant farm where the potential of damages would be significantly lower. The same elements of urgency and limited available options also provide the defense privilege under the rule of law of Ã¢â¬ËnecessityÃ¢â¬â¢. If the defense falls under the preview of Ã¢â¬Ëpublic necessityÃ¢â¬â¢, then D is not liable for any damages and P will not be able to collect any damages from D. However, if the defense falls under Ã¢â¬Ëprivate necessityÃ¢â¬â¢, D is liable for limited damages to P. As such a key factor to decide under the rule of law will be Ã¢â¬Ëwas this public necessity versus private necessity ?Ã¢â¬â¢. Though D took action to minimize loss to the public, the action was also driven by private necessity as D and DÃ¢â¬â¢ clients were less likely to be hurt in the vacant field than in the sub-division and/or trees. In addition, the fact that D was a pilot and was flying a commercially paying client will also play a role in deciding public versus private necessity. b)Did Pilot trespass on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s Chattel ? Trespass to chattel is the intentional interference with the right of possession of personal property of another. The defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s acts must intentionally damage the chattel, deprive the owner of its use for a period of time, or totally dispossess the chattel from the owner. i.An act by D that intentionally interferes with PÃ¢â¬â¢s right of possession in a chattel ii.Causation iii.Damages Based on the facts, it is clear that the Farmer does have a valid claim for Ã¢â¬Ëtrespass to chattelÃ¢â¬â¢. The elements of causation and damages to the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s crops are clear. Even though the facts do state that the Pilot Ã¢â¬Ëdid not see the crops from the air as they had been recently plantedÃ¢â¬â¢), a the Restatement (Second) of Torts indicates that Ã¢â¬Å"intention is present when an act is done for the purpose of using or otherwise intermeddling with a chattel or with knowledge that such an intermeddling will, to a substantial certainty, result from the actÃ¢â¬ . Based on the rule of law, the Farmer has a valid prima facie claim for Ã¢â¬Ëtrespass to chattelÃ¢â¬â¢. c)Did Pilot commit trespass of conversion on FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s property (land and crops) ? The trespass of conversion is similar to the tort of trespass to chattel. Both require D to interfere with PÃ¢â¬â¢s right of possession in personal property. However, defendant must have intended to exercise control over the property in a manner inconsistent with the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. However, conversion claims are brought in cases where the damage done to the property is more severe than in a trespass case. The facts of the case do not indicate the s everity of the damages or the length of time for the loss of chattel. In the event, that the land was damaged for the longer term where the Farmer was unable to use the land for farming for the longer term, this claim could be made under the laws for Ã¢â¬ËconversionÃ¢â¬â¢ Conclusion Trespass to land, Trespass to Chattel and Conversion are acts which were committed by Pilot. The Pilot fully intended to land on the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s property knowing that it belonged to someone else and knowing that they did not have Ã¢â¬ËexpressÃ¢â¬â¢ consent to land. The PilotÃ¢â¬â¢s act of intentionally landing in the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s field caused damaged to the FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s land and crops. However, the Pilot acted within reason, acted as a reasonable person would under the emergency circumstances and did act on the best viable option i.e. landing on vacant farmland versus, a sub-division of homes or trees. The Pilot did not act with recklessness or negligence. As a result, the defense of necessity is applicable. The defense of Ã¢â¬ËnecessityÃ¢â¬â¢ will limit or fully absolve the Pilot from any damage claims from the Farmer. The distinction between public versus private necessity is the deciding factor on the PilotÃ¢â¬â¢s liability towards the Farmer. Though D took a ction to minimize loss to the public, the action was also driven by private necessity as D and DÃ¢â¬â¢s clients were less likely to be hurt in the vacant field than in the sub-division and/or trees. In addition, the fact that D was a pilot and was flying a commercially paying client will play a role in deciding public versus private necessity. I believe that it is an act that is not likely to be defined as a Ã¢â¬Ëpublic needÃ¢â¬â¢ act under case law and as such, the Pilot would be liable to pay reasonable (non-punitive) damages to the Farmer.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
To finally come to a conclusion on this question we will be referring to 3 narrative poems which are, Ã¢â¬ËThe Lady of ShalottÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËThe Charge of the Light BrigadeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËMariana. Ã¢â¬Ë A narrative poem is a poem that tells a story such as Ã¢â¬ËMarianaÃ¢â¬â¢ which tells us a story of a girl who is waiting for her lover who would not return to her. The poetic skills that can be used in such poems are techniques such as description, use of mood and atmosphere, use of words, structure (stanzas, rhythm, rhyme scheme) and style (repetition, imagery, personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia, metaphor, contrast, simile), also narrative skills, e. g. suspense and tension (created within the story). In Ã¢â¬ËThe Lady of ShalottÃ¢â¬â¢, Tennyson divides the poem into 4 parts. The first part (part 1) sets the scene and consists of 4 stanzas. The second part (part 2) also consists of 4 stanzas. In this part we are inside the tower and we meet the lady, we also learn the she has a curse on her and that she must not look out of the window. In part 3 there are 5 stanzas. Here Sir Lancelot is introduced riding and singing on his way to Camelot. The lady can not resist and goes to look at him. The curse is broken and it is upon her, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThe curse is come upon me,Ã¢â¬â¢ cried The lady of ShalottÃ¢â¬ (part 3 stanza 5 lines 8-9) Part 4 is the climax to the story and the poem. This part consists of 6 stanzas. Here she leaves the castle, goes out into the storm and finds a boat. The river takes her far. She sings her last song and dies. She is now seen by the people and Sir Lancelot for the first time. The second poem Ã¢â¬ËMarianaÃ¢â¬â¢ is made up of 7 stanzas. At the start of each stanza there is a narrative voice and MarianaÃ¢â¬â¢s voice at the end. Each stanza describes a different area of her life. In the first stanza we see everything falling apart, Ã¢â¬Å"The rusted nails fell from the knotsÃ¢â¬ (Stanza 1 line 3) This is a comparison to how her life is falling apart. At the end of each of the first six stanzas there are three lines which are always the same, Ã¢â¬Å"He cometh not, she said,Ã¢â¬â¢ she said; She said, Ã¢â¬ËI am aweary, aweary, I would that I were dead! Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ (stanza 1 2 3 4 5 6 lines 10-11-12) The effect could be that we start to feel sorry for this poor, wretched woman as she always says that she wants to be dead. These three lines show that Mariana is waiting for someone but he never arrives. She wishes she was dead. The whole poem is about a woman alone in her house with everything falling apart.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Since time in memorial, science and religion which contains the idea of a personal god and his existence as one of its key pillar aspects, have always depicted an outstanding collide. Many scientific scholars and theologists have been involved in this argument in a bid to defend their different stands. However as long as this heated debate has existed, no answer has evidencial conclusion has been arrived at. For instance, the views contained by Albert eisten and Paul Tillich depict the difference in opinion about this aspect of a personal God. as much as everyone is entitled to his/her own opinion, these opinions and the justification they have do not seem to offer any direction to this long standing debate. Einstein states that there is no personal god. He gives a reason to justify his view stating that he and every other intellect is in a state that he similates to that of a little child getting into a huge study with books written in many different languages. He says this child knows that these books have their authors but he/she does not know and neither does she/he comprehend the booksÃ¢â¬â¢ arrangement. He concludes that this is the perspective held towards god not only by him but by almost every other human having intelligence. After a comparison he did between the magnanimous relay and arrangement of the cosmos and failure to reconcile these features with the evil and suffering he got in the humanÃ¢â¬â¢s being, eisteen concluded posing a question , how could an almighty god if at all he is there allow the existence of the suffering that is found on earth? In summing EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion he says that his idea is a childlike. However to him an embrace to the idea would be naive and anthropological . On the other hand theologist Paul Tillich holds a different opinion on the same. he asserts the existence of a personal god describing this being as the stronghold of being and even as the existence itself. Tilich, being a theologian is assertive and upholds the idea that a personal god actually exists despite the occurances that may question the existence of this being in terms of pain ,evil and suffering that exists among the human race. Tillich also states that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is not an aspect that can be proved or disapproved. In more bids to put more emphasis on his opinion which was commonly upheld by other theologists , Tillich even turned scientific tools into theological instruments. He was utterly committed to attempt put his view in the crystal clearest way that god is beyond essence and existence. Other scholars also involved in this argument like Hartshine say that there is really no sense in trying to find out whether a personal God exists. He however states that if there is existence of a personal God is a possibility then there is a necessity of doing so. In this bid it seems that there is a clear cut between those who agree with TillichÃ¢â¬â¢s argument and those who differ with him. However these efforts are slowly being thwarted as the clock ticks. In a bid to conclude, it should therefore be noted that in spite the numerous argument the fact is, scientists have no evidence to prove that a personal god does not exist. Sources Espanol. Evidence for God from science. Retrieved 23rd October 2008 from : http://www. godandscience. org
Assessment Of For And As Learning Essay Assessment of learning refers to strategies designed to confirm what students know, demonstrate whether or not they have met curriculum outcomes or the goals of their individualized programs, or to certify proficiency and make decisions about studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ future programs or placements. It is designed to provide evidence of achievement to parents, other educators, the students themselves, and sometimes to outside groups (e. g. , employers, other educational institutions). Assessment of learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements or symbols about how well students are learning. It often contributes to pivotal decisions that will affect studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ futures. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement of assessment of learning be credible and defensible. TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Roles in Assessment of Learning Because the consequences of assessment of learning are often far-reaching and affect students seriously, teachers have the responsibility of reporting student learning accurately and fairly, based on evidence obtained from a variety of contexts and applications. Effective assessment of learning requires that teachers provideÃ ?a rationale for undertaking a particular assessment of learning at a particular point in time ?clear descriptions of the intended learning ?processes that make it possible for students to demonstrate their competence and skill ?a range of alternative mechanisms for assessing the same outcomes ?public and defensible reference points for making judgments ? Transparent approaches to interpretation ?descriptions of the assessment process ?strategies for recourse in the event of disagreement about the decisions With the help of their teachers, students can look forward to assessment of learning tasks asÃ occasions to show their competence, as well as the depth and breadth of their learning. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING Assessment for learning focuses on engaging students in classroom assessment in support of their own learning and informing teachers about what to do next to help students to progress. Assessment for learning is assessment for improvement not assessment for accountability as can be the case with summative assessments (Stiggins, 2002). The keys to Assessment for Learning (AFL) is to use a variety of assessment tools and methods in order to provide ongoing evidence to students, teachers and parents that demonstrates howÃ well each student is mastering the identified outcomes. This evidence is used to provide descriptive feedback to the students and to enable the teacher to differentiate the instruction to meet the needs of individual students or groups. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING VS. ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING Gregory, Cameron, and Davies (1997) outline some distinct differences between Assessment for Learning and Assessment of Learning. Educators are using these terms to help distinguish between the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role as a learning coach versus the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role of judging the extent of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement in relation to an established standard. This assessment is considered summative and is done at the end. 1. Assessment for learning is the big deal, while assessment of learning is the done deal. 2. Assessment for learning is formative, while assessment of learning is summative. 3. Assessment for learning is supportive, while assessment of learning measures. 4. Assessment for learning uses descriptions, while assessment of learning uses scores. 5. Assessment for learning happens day by day, moment by moment, while assessment of learning happens at the end. The assertion is that neither one is better than the other, but both need to be used within aÃ students learning so that the student is able to understand not only the work that is being asked of them, but also how their own learning occurs. Assessment for learning is intended to be both diagnostic and formative to help students improve their learning. Four critical questions that the teacher must ask when planning for assessment for learning: WHY AM I ASSESSING? If the intent of assessment is to enhance student learning teachers use assessment for learning to uncover what students believe to be true and to learn more about the connections students are making, their prior knowledge, preconceptions, gaps, and learning styles. This information is used to inform and differntiate instruction to build on what students already know and to challenge students when their are problems inhibiting progression to the next stages of learning. Teachers use this information to provide their students with descriptive feedback that will further their learning and not as a sumamtive assessment or to report a grade. WHAT AM I ASSESSING? Assessment for learning requires ongoing assessment of the outcomes that comprise the intended learning. In most cases these are the curriculum outcomes. Teachers create assessments that willÃ expose studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking and skills in relation to the intended learning, and the common preconceptions. WHAT ASSESSMENT METHOD SHOULD I USE? When planning assessment for learning, the teacher must think about what assessment is designed to expose, and must decide which assessment approaches are most likely to give detailed information about what each student is thinking and learning. The methods need to incorporate a variety of ways for students to demonstrate their learning. For example, having students complete tasks orally or through visual representation allow those who are strugglingÃ with reading or writing to demonstrate their learning. HOW CAN I USE THE INFORMA%ON? The information collected in assessment for learning is used to report to the student and by offering descriptive, on time feedback and to provide the teacher with information to allow for changes in instruction for individual students or groups of students. ASSESSMENT AS LEARNING Assessment as learning occurs when students are their own assessors. Students monitor their own learning, ask questions and use a range of strategies to decide what they know and can do, andÃ how to use assessment for new learning. Assessment as learning: ?encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning ?requires students to ask questions about their learning ?involves teachers and students creating learning goals to encourage growth and development ?provides ways for students to use formal and informal feedback and self-assessment to help them understand the next steps in learning ?encourages peer assessment, self-assessment and reflection. ROLES This assessment model supports the view of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s learners as actively involved in the learning process. Students are educated on the purpose of assignments and the outcomes they are trying to achieve. Hence the teacher and the student both have critical roles in understanding learning outcomes and modifying learning in Assessment as Learning. Teacher Ensuring assessment methods are appropriate and the purpose is clear to students ensures quality and fair assessment practices as per the Principles for Fair Student Assessment in Canada (1993). Beyond choosing the learning outcomes to be covered, the activities to follow and the assessment methods, in Assessment as Learning, the teacher engages the students in this process. In Assessment as Learning, the teacher is a guide, Ã¢â¬Å"Giving them [students] the tools to undertake their own learning wisely and well. Ã¢â¬ (WNCP, p. 42) Students learn to monitor their own learning and make adaptations as required. In addition to monitoring learning and guiding instruction through assessment for learning, the teacher is assessing the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to assess themselves as they learn how to assess their own learning. Teachers can follow the following model in order to practice Assessment as Learning in their classroom: (adapted from WNCP, p. 42-43) 1. Discuss the learning outcomes with the students. 2. Create criteria with the students for the various tasks that need to be completed and/or skills that need to be learned or mastered 3. Provide feedback to students as they learn and ask them guiding questions to help them monitor their own learning 4. Help them set goals to extend or support their learning as needed in order to meet or fully meet the expectations 5. Provide reference points and examples for the learning outcomes Teachers are also responsible for ensuring that students have a learning environment in which they feel comfortable and safe to learn as well as have ample time to practise what is beingÃ taught. Student Beyond completing the tasks assigned to them by their teacher, students move from the passive learner to an active owner of their own learning. Initially, with teacher guidance and tools, students learn to monitor if they have understood the learning outcome being explored and the metacognitive process. Once the metacognitive skills have been acquired, students can independently adjust their learning accordingly and demonstrate the Ã¢â¬Å"self-reflection, self- monitoring and self-adjustment. Ã¢â¬ (WNCP, 2006, p. 85) Extensive and relevant modeling in the questions below can help students reach this point: 1. What is the purpose of learning these concepts and skills? 2. What do I know about this topic? 3. What strategies do I know that will help me learn this? 4. Am I understanding these concepts? 5. What are the criteria for improving my work? 6. Have I accomplished the goals I set for myself? What is self-assessment? According to Boud (1995), all assessment including self-assessment comprises two main elements: making decisions about the standards of performance expected and then making judgments about the quality of the performance in relation to these standards. When self-assessment is introduced, it should ideally involve students in both of these aspects. Andrade and Du (2007) provide a helpful definition of self-assessment that focuses on the formative learning that it can promote: Self-assessment is a process of formative assessment during which students reflect on and evaluate the quality of their work and their learning, judge the degree to which they reflect explicitly stated goals or criteria, identify strengths and weaknesses in their work, and revise accordingly (2007, p. 160). EXAMPLES OF SELF-ASSESSMENT Self-assessment can take many forms, including: ?writing conferences ?discussion (whole-class or small-group) ?reflection logs ?weekly self-evaluations ?self-assessment checklists and inventories ?teacher-student interviews These types of self-assessment share a common theme: they ask students to review their work to determine what they have learned and what areas of confusion still exist. Although each method differs slightly, all should include enough time for students to consider thoughtfully and evaluate their progress. When students understand the criteria for good work before they begin a literacy activity, they are more likely to meet those criteria. The key to this understanding is to make the criteria clear. As students evaluate their work, you may want them to set up their own criteria for good work. Help them with the clarity of their criteria as they assess their own work. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ observations and reflections can also provide valuable feedback for refining your instructional plan. As your students answer questions about their learning and the strategies they use, think about their responses to find out what they are really learning and to see if they are learning what you are teaching them. K-W-L (KNOW, WANT TO KNOW, LEARNED) CHART. K-W-L (Ogle, 1986) is an instructional reading strategy that is used to guide students through a text. Students begin by brainstorming everything they Know about a topic. This information is recorded in the K column of a K-W-L chart. Students then generate a list of questions about what they Want to Know about the topic. These questions are listed in the W column of the chart. During or after reading, students answer the questions that are in the W column. This new information that they have Learned is recorded in the L column of the K-W-L chart. Purpose The K-W-L strategy serves several purposes: Elicits studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ prior knowledge of the topic of the text. ?Sets a purpose for reading. ?Helps students to monitor their comprehension. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Donna Ogle asserts that KWL helps students become better readers of expository text and helps teachers to be more interactive in their teaching (Ogle, 1987). KWL charts help students to be active thinkers while they read (Carr & Ogle, 1987), giving them specific things to look for and having them reflect on what they learned when they are finished reading. In learning, metacognition involves the active monitoring and conscious control and regulationÃ of cognitive processes. It involves thinking about thinking, self-awareness, and self-regulation (Flavell, 1979). The metacognitive strategy of self-questioning is used to ensure that students comprehend the text. When students set their own purposes for reading, they are more motivated and active as readers. Each student has a schema, or a framework for how they view the world. Accessing a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s prior knowledge is the first step in integrating new concepts into their existing schema. KWL charts help activate background knowledge and provide an opportunity for students to set their own learning objectives. Assessment Of For And As Learning. (2016, Sep 26).